Chu is a native of Tongcheng, Anhui. He joined the Communist Party in 1975. Chu has been first-in-charge of the large northern region since August 2001, and has a unique approach to policy. During his tenure, Inner Mongolia's GDP increased at a higher rate than the rest of the country. At its height real GDP growth was measured at 17%. Chu's obsession with GDP growth, however, cost some essential benefits for most of the region's poor. Although his administration gave rise to the slogan, "for economic development, China is the world's bright spot, and Inner Mongolia is China's", Chu created a gross wealth imbalance within the region.
He was investigated by the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection in April 2007 for alleged corruption, including charges of nepotism and illegal transfers of funds, as well as illegally furthering the business interests of friends and relatives. Chu, however, ignored most of the allegations, and concentrated on preparing for the 60th Anniversary Celebrations of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, which cost immense funds. In addition, various text messages began spreading in Inner Mongolia about Chu Bo's corruption record, he made a series of illegal arrests.