Saturday, October 11, 2008

Zhang Wenyue

Zhang Wenyue is the current Communist Party of China , succeeding his colleague Li Keqiang in October 2007.


A native of Fengcheng, Jiangxi and a graduate of the China University of Geosciences, Zhang joined the Communist Party of China in June 1965. During the Cultural Revolution Zhang was placed in an army work troupe, subsequently being sent to Sichuan in 1969. Since then his career had been largely concentrated in the geological field until 1995, when he was transferred to work in Xinjiang as the autonomous region's deputy party secretary.

From 1999 to 2001 he served as the commander-in-chief of the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, before moving onto Liaoning to succeed Bo Xilai to become the province's governor in 2004.

Zhang Lin (Anhui)

Zhang Lin is a cyber-dissident from the People's Republic of China. He was born in Bengbu, Anhui province in 1963. He led student's hunger strikes in Bengbu in 1989. He was imprisoned on January 29 of 2005. He now is imprisoned in Bengbu’s No. 1 Detention Center.

Zhang Jingyao

Zhang Jingyao, Chang Ching-yao, 張敬堯, , was a Chinese General, the military governor of and later Hunan Province. He was known as one of the most notorious of China's war-lords, known for his troops' atrocities and the looting of Hunan of its wealth during his administration. He was removed from office for his abuses and eventually assassinated in 1933 for aiding the Empire of Japan by attempting to set up the monarchy of Puyi in northern China with Japanese money.

Zhang Jingyao was born in 1881 and became a General in the Beiyang Army and then was part of the Anhui clique. He was Military Governor of Chahar Province from October 18 1917 to March 29 1918. He was then given the post of Military Governor of Hunan province from March 1918. While he was governor his troops committed many atrocities, killing civilians, robbing the wealthy, and raping women throughout the time they garrisoned the province. He is also said to have reduced the province to a state of beggary.

In August 1919, Zhang Jingyao censored Mao Zedong's "Xiang-jiang River Commentary" magazine because of Mao's efforts to organize the movement for expelling him from the governorship. Mao led a Hunan students' delegation to Peking where he appealed nationwide for support and revealed Zhang Jingyao's atrocities in Hunan Province.

At Yochow on June 16 1920, Zhang's troops murdered an American missionary, William A. Reimert. This provoked the intervention of an American gunboat , which sent ashore a landing party of one officer and 40 men on 25 June to protect the American mission. Two days later—when local tensions had eased—they were reembarked. On the 29th, Zhang Jingyao, was removed from office, and the Chinese foreign office investigated the incident and expressed its profound regrets to the Americans. Zhang was later pardoned, in obcure circumstances.

In 1933, Zhang became involved in the scheme of the Empire of Japan to set up the monarchy of Puyi in northern China with Japanese money. An assassin shot and fatally wounded him in Peiping's Grand Hotel.

See also
* Warlord Era



Zhang Jindong

Zhang Jindong , is a entrepreneur and billionaire. He's one of the two founders and the current president of the Suning Group , whose headquarters are located in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province.


Zhang was born in Anhui Province in 1963. He graduated from the Nanjing Normal University and studied Chinese literature. After graduation, Zhang first worked in a cloth factory named Haowei Group between 1985~1989.

1990, Zhang together with his old brother Zhang Guiping opened a shop on Ninghai Road in Nanjing, selling air conditioning and related products. Later Zhang Guiping quitted from this business but shifted into real estate.

Zhang further developed his small shop into a giant business group - the Suning Group, with only 15 years. In 2007's Forbes Mainland China Rich List , Zhang was ranked No.5 with 33.61 billion .

Extra links


Yu Ying-shih

Yu Ying-shih is a Chinese American historian. He is an Emeritus Professor of and History at Princeton University.

In 1949, he was enrolled in the department of History in Yenching University. But he later in 1950 came to Hong Kong for reunion with his family. He then studied in the newly founded New Asia College, later incorporated into Chinese University of Hong Kong. He studied with Ch'ien Mu, a scholar rooted in traditional Chinese philosophy, and became the first graduate of the college. On Ch'ien's recommendation, he came to Harvard University in the United States in 1955, and earned his PhD in 1962. He then lectured in various universities including University of Michigan, Harvard, Yale University and Princeton University. He is one of the few people to have been tenured at three Ivy League universities. In 1973, he came back to his alma mater, New Asia College. He became the Head of the College and also the Pro Vice-Chancellor of University, before returning to Harvard, then moving to Yale in 1977, and then to Princeton in 1987. He retired from Princeton in 2001.

On November 15, 2006, it was announced that Yu Ying-shih was the third recipient of the for lifetime achievement in the study of humanity. He shares the prize with John Hope Franklin.

He is the older brother of Paul Yu.

Xiao Zuoxin

Xiao Zuoxin is the former mayor of Fuyang county, Anhui province, China. He was convicted of corruption and is serving a life imprisonment.

In 2007, Xiao's property was auctioned in a very public event.

Wu Bangguo

Wu Bangguo is a People's Republic of China. He is currently chairman of the of the National People's Congress, a position which the media often refers to as "China's top legislator" and second in official rankings in the party.

Early life and political career

Wu was born in Feidong County, Anhui . He entered Tsinghua University in 1960, majoring in electron tube engineering at the Department of Radio Electronics, where he graduated in 1967. He subsequently was employed as a worker and technician at Shanghai's No. 3 Electronic Tube Factory, and then deputy chief and chief of the technical section.

Since 2003, he has served as the Chairman of the of the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China, ranking second in the of the Communist Party of China hierarchy. At the 11th National People's Congress, he was re-elected as Chairman of the NPC Standing Committee on 15 March 2008.

Wu was formerly vice premier under former Zhu Rongji, but his rocky relationship with Zhu reportedly ruled out his chance of becoming premier himself after the latter's departure from office.

Wu has seen his share of controversy when he visited Hong Kong and infamously said "Hong Kong will have as much power as Beijing wants it to and nothing more."


In September 2007, Wu disappeared from national media for over twenty days, a sign that he has probably undergone medical treatment to what was speculated as cancer.

Career timeline

*1976-1978: Deputy secretary of the Party Committee of Shanghai No. 3; deputy director of the revolutionary committee, deputy factory director, deputy secretary of the Party committee of the factory, and director of the factory.

*1978-1979: Deputy manager of Shanghai Electronic Elements Company.

*1979-1981: Deputy manager of Shanghai Electron Tube Company.

*1981-1983: Deputy secretary of the Party Committee of Shanghai Meters, Instruments and Telecommunications Bureau.

*1983-1985: Member of the Standing Committee of the CPC Shanghai Municipal Committee and secretary of the CPC Municipal Committee in Charge of Science and Technology.

*1985-1991: Deputy secretary of the CPC Shanghai Municipal Committee.

*1991-1992: Secretary of the CPC Shanghai Municipal Committee.

*1992-1994: Member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and secretary of the CPC Shanghai Municipal Committee.

*1994-1995: Member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and Member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee.

*1995-1997: Member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, Member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee and vice-premier of the State Council.

*1997-1998: Member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and vice-premier of the State Council.

*1998-1999: Member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, vice-premier of the State Council and secretary of the Work Committee of Large Enterprises of CPC Central Committee.

*1999-2002: Member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, vice-premier of the State Council, member of its Leading Party Member Group and secretary of the Central Work Committee of Large Enterprises.

*2002-: Member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, vice-premier of the State Council, member of its Leading Party Member Group and secretary of the Work Committee of Large Enterprises of CPC Central Committee.

Wang Shengjun

Wang Shengjun is the new elected President of the Supreme People's Court of the People's Republic of China.


Wang was born in Su County, Anhui in 1946. He joined the Communist Party of China in 1972.

Wang was appointed as the Secretary General of the in 1998. He was the member of the and 17th CPC Central Committee.

Wang Ming

Wang Ming was a senior leader of the early Chinese Communist Party as well as the mastermind of the famous 28 Bolsheviks group. Wang was also a major political rival of Mao Zedong during the 1930s, opposing Mao's nationalist deviation from the Comintern and orthodox Marxism and Leninism lines. Wang epitomized the intellectualism and foreign dogmatism Mao criticized in his essays "On Practice" and "On Contradiction". The competition between Wang and Mao was a reflection of the power struggle between the Soviet Union, through the vehicle of the Comintern, and the CCP to control both the direction and future of the Chinese revolution.

Early life

On May 23, 1904, Wang was born in Jinzhai, Anhui, as Chen Shaoyu to a poor peasant family. In 1920, he entered the Zhicheng Elementary School in Gushi County. Wang then entered the Third Agricultural School of the Anhui Province, which was founded by the revolutionary Zhu Yunshan. Zhu had a strong influence on the school's students, introducing many progressive journals and books such as ''New Youth'' and ''Communism ABC''. In the school, Wang would encounter another strong influential figure in his life, A Ying , his teacher. A Ying would teach Wang about Lenin and Chen Duxiu.

During his school years, Wang was also active in the political movement. He led boycotts of Japanese products and corrupt elections. After his graduation in 1924, Wang enrolled in the Wuchang Business School, where he studied for a year. There he published several articles on revolution and communism. That same year he joined the May 30th Movement, which involved strikes and protests against imperialism during the in Wuchang. In the summer of 1924, Wang joined the CCP.

From Moscow to Shanghai

In November 1925, the CCP sent Wang to Moscow Sun Yat-sen University in Russia, founded by the Chinese nationalist Sun Yat-sen. During this time, Wang mastered both the Russian language and . It was also during this time that Wang encountered his first major political adversary, Ren Zhuoxuan. Ren was appointed as the secretary of the University's student CCP branch. Eventually Wang's eloquence won over Ren's authoritarian style in various debates. Consequently, in April 1926, Wang was elected as chairman of the University's CCP branch. After the election, Pavel Mif, the University's vice president, became fond of Wang. In January 1927, when Mif came to China as the head of a delegation, Wang was his interpreter.

After the CCP's split with the in 1927, Wang and Mif attended the CCP's 5th National Congress in Wuhan, after which Wang became Secretary for the CCP's for two months. Wang was also a part-time editor of the ''Guidance'' journal where he published a few articles. After the July 15 Coup in Wuhan, Wang returned to Moscow with Mif.

After the purge of Karl Radek by Stalin, Mif was appointed as President of Moscow Sun Yat-sen University, and then Vice Minister of the Eastern Department of Comintern. For his service and loyalty, Wang became Mif's protégé. Along with other activists such as Zhang Mintian, Bo Gu and Wang Jiaxiang, Wang Ming founded the 28 Bolsheviks group. They labeled themselves as orthodox communists.

In 1929, Wang, along with the rest of the 28 Bolsheviks, was sent back to China with the goal of taking over the leadership of the CCP. However, they met strong resistance within the CCP from members such as Zhang Guotao and Zhou Enlai. Not surprisingly, they were assigned insignificant positions. Meanwhile, Wang found comfort in dating a member of the 28 Bolsheviks, Meng Qingshu, who later became his wife. Wang was then transferred to the Propaganda Department of CCP, where Li Lisan was the incumbent minister. During a half year from 1929 to 1930, Wang published many articles in the party newspaper ''Red Flag'' and magazine ''Bolshevik'', which supported the leftism embraced by Li. In 1930, when Wang attended a secret meeting in Shanghai, he was promptly arrested. But Wang was lucky enough to be ignored by the KMT secret police, who had no idea what value this young man might be to them. Wang was soon released after bribing the guard.

Wang was transferred to CCP's Central Labor Union after his release. Although Wang was a leftist and abided by the Communism dogma strictly in essence, his beliefs were different from those of Li. Wang was more strict about and constrained by the dogmas of Marxism textbooks and the policies of Comintern. He quickly found a temporary alliance with old CCP members, labor activists such as He Mengxiong , Lin Yunan against Li. In a meeting, Wang argued with Li and offended Li. As a price for his being impulsive and immature, Wang was discharged from his position and demoted to the Jiangsu division of CCP.

In August 1930, Zhou Enlai and Qu Qiubai were sent back to China by the Comintern to correct the leftism of Li, and Li was called to Moscow for repentance and lost his power. In December of the same year, Mif came to China as an envoy of the Comintern. With his mentor's strong support, Wang and his 28 Bolshevik associates entered the power center of the CCP in the 4th Plenary Meeting of 6th National Congress of CCP, by way of labeling both Li and old CCP members such as He and Luo Zhanglong as dissidents.

Of all the so-called 28 Bolsheviks, only Wang was elected member of the CCP politburo. He was not a Commissioner of the Central Committee of CCP yet, this being a prerequisite for being a politburo member under the system proposed by Wang himself. With Mif staying in China for almost a year, the CCP was under his control, and Wang played an important role as his consultant. Although Xiang Zhongfa was the incumbent General Secretary, he was manipulated by Mif and Wang. While He and Luo were still acting to set up another group to divorce from this center, they suffered a deadly loss: He and more than 30 senior associates were arrested by the KMT in a secret meeting. He and 24 others were later executed. There was a rumor that it was Wang who sold them out to purge the dissidents, but it was baseless and without strong evidence. The only certainty was that Wang did benefit from this mysterious incident.

Before long, with the arrest of Gu ShunZhang , who was in charge of security for the CCP, many senior leaders such as Xiang and Yun Daiying were arrested and executed. Wang returned to Moscow with his wife with a medical excuse. After Wang's departure, under the direction of Zhou Enlai, an acting politburo was set up in Shanghai. Zhou, Zhang Mintian, Bo Gu, Kang Sheng, Chen Yun, and Lu Futan , Li Zhusheng were selected to be in charge of the daily work of the CCP. Among these people, Zhang, Bo Gu and Li were members of the 28 Bolsheviks and close associates of Wang, so Wang could still keep remote control over the CCP through his associates. Furthermore, Kang and Chen met him and became his supporters in Moscow several years later. Both Lu and Li would later defect to the KMT.

From Moscow to Yan'an

From November 1931 to November 1937, Wang worked and lived in Moscow as Director of the CCP's delegation to the Comintern. During that period, he was elected as Executive Commissioner, member of the Presidium, and Alternate General of the Comintern. This indicated his prominence and popularity in the Comintern.

It was also during this time, under the direction of Bo Gu, that the CCP suffered greatly at the hands of the KMT, both in the cities and the countryside. This led to a general retreat of the CCP to the distant countryside, called the Long March. In the Zunyi Conference, the 28 Bolsheviks dissolved. Key members of the group — Zhang Mintian, Wang Jiaxiang, and Yang Shangkun — defected to Mao Zedong's camp. Moreover, Mao had replaced Bo Gu as head of the military, which was unknown to Wang and Comintern. As Mao consolidated his power, he became the actual paramount leader of CCP, even though Zhang Wentian was officially appointed as General Secretary of the CCP in Zunyi Conference.

In 1931, Imperial Japan successfully invaded China's Manchuria province. Wang made his contribution to China by lecturing on the united front against imperialism in the 7th Congress of Comintern in 1935. In August 1935, the CCP delegation to the Comintern issued the ''August 1 Manifesto'', which called upon the Chinese to unite against Japan. In the same month, a CCP delegation to the Comintern held meetings to discuss the united front against imperialism. In the meeting, Wang pointed out that the archenemy of China was Japan, not Chiang Kai-shek, and that it was possible for Chinese revolutionaries to set up an alliance with Chiang.

After that, the delegation sent Zhang Hao , whose real name was Lin Yuying , also a relative of Lin Biao and a senior worker activist of CCP, back to Yanan to announce the decision of this meeting. In the CCP politburo meeting in December, CCP made a decision to set up a united front against Japanese action, but still held out by labeling Chiang as the archenemy of the revolution, as much as Japan. In 1936 the Secretariat of the Comintern issued a telegram to the Secretariat of CCP to point out the error of listing Chiang with Japan as the archenemies of Chinese revolution, and that it was necessary to include Chiang's army in the war against Japan.

With the occurrence of the Xi'an Incident in 1936, the Marco Polo Bridge Incident and the Shanghai Hongqiao Airport Incident in 1937, a general war between China and Japan was unavoidable. Wang's blueprint for a united front against Japan was under construction, with the Red Army of the CCP transferred into the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army fighting against Japan.

For the further direction of United Front, Wang was sent back to Yanan with Kang Sheng and Chen Yun after being absent from China for 6 years. After the return of Wang, Mao expressed his respect for Wang as an envoy of the Comintern and for his great influence for putting forward the concept of United Front against Japan. Possibly Mao wanted to appeal to the Comintern and Soviet Union behind Wang, from whom Mao desperately needed support both in money and weaponry. So when Wang brought forward a new list of leaders of CCP, Mao showed his humility by putting Wang in the first place. Wang demoted his former ally Zhang Wentian from the number 1 place to the number 7 place, which weakened his own camp and created new opponents by driving Zhang to Mao's group.

Wang, Kang and Chen were elected into the new politburo, with Wang as Secretariat for the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the CCP which was in charge of the daily operation of CCP headquarters. Chen was in charge of organization and Kang in charge of security, but oddly enough, Chen and Kang turned to Mao's camp, and as a result, Wang lost two important potential supporters. Moreover, when Wang passed by Xinjiang during his trip to China, he ordered Deng Fa, the notorious security boss for CCP, to arrest senior leaders of CCP Yu Xiusong, Huang Cao, Li Te and two others, who were his former opponents now working for the warlord Sheng Shicai under the direction of CCP. Five of them were tortured and executed in the prison of Sheng, accused of being Trotskyists. When Wang boasted about his dirty work to Zhang Guotao, Zhang, who was regarded as dissident himself, was greatly irritated, for he had known these old CCP members quite well and worried about being persecuted himself. After this incident, Zhang despised Wang and would never support him.

When Wang returned to Yanan, he was admired by most of the CCP members as a talent of Marxism for his erudition and deep insights into Marxism and Leninism. Some senior CCP leaders, including Zhou Enlai and Peng Dehuai, showed their respect for Wang, which made Mao jealous and irritated.

Furthermore, Wang began to disagree with Mao over major issues on the United Front. Wang believed all CCP work should be carried out within the framework of the United Front; Mao insisted CCP should maintain its independence from the United Front instead. In order to enforce his policy, Wang made the mistake of leaving the position of Secretariat of the CCP in charge of the daily operations of the CCP headquarters, and went for the position of General Secretary of the Yangtze Division of CCP to handle United Front issues with the KMT in Wuhan, which meant Wang had left the power base in Yanan, with Mao now able to use all means to strengthen his power grip without any interference.


In its battle against Imperial Japan, the KMT suffered great losses due to internal corruption, incompetence in military command, outdated military supplies and logistics, and the general strength of the Japanese military. As a strong advocate of the United Front, Wang was damaged as well by the KMT's failure in the battlefield as the KMT forces bore the brunt of the fighting; under Mao's urging the Communists rarely engaged the Japanese army in significant battles. After the KMT lost the battles of and , in 1938, Wang suffered a heavy blow as the Yangtze Division was abolished and he himself was dismissed back to Yanan. Yanan was divided into the Southern China and Central Plain Divisions, led by Zhou Enlai and Liu Shaoqi respectively; this was part of Mao's plot to break up the alliance of Wang and Zhou, and to promote his associate Liu. Wang was called back to Yanan to await his fate.

Wang was reassigned to several insignificant ceremonial jobs. Moreover, Mao deprived Wang of authority by use of propaganda, preventing Wang from publishing his opinions and articles. With the dissolution of the Comintern in 1941, Wang lost all hope for saving his political life. In 1942 Mao launched the zhengfeng or "Rectification" Movement against dogmatism and empiricism. Wang became Mao's main target as representative of dogmatism and Zhou as representative of empiricism. Although Wang experienced great humiliation, he was still fortunate to escape from tortures similar to those inflicted by Kang Sheng's secret police on other CCP members. Nonetheless, in his later book ''50 Years of the CCP and Yanan Diary'', written by a reporter from the Soviet Union, Wang accused Mao of plotting to murder him by poison. Although there are still disagreements over this accusation, Wang's health was certainly greatly damaged under this stress.

In the later stages of the Zhengfeng campaign, Wang had to announce his confession and apology in a public meeting. It was only after Mao received a telegram from Georgi Dimitrov that he stopped the persecution. As a show of leniency and a sign of appeasement to Dimitrov , Mao placed Wang on the CCP's Central Committee in the 7th National Congress. Eventually, as Wang's credibility and influence waned, Moscow's leaders began to acknowledge Mao's leadership. During the period of the Chinese Civil War, Wang was appointed as director of policy research of the CCP and responsible for some insignificant legislative work.

From Beijing to Moscow

It was only after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, that Wang reappeared from the shadows on to the political stage. He was elected as Director of the Central Legal Committee of the CCP and the Central People's Government. It was an irony for him to be responsible for advising on legislation in a dictatorial regime. Before he was elected as Commissioner of Central Committee of CCP in the 8th National Congress of CPC in 1956, Wang went to Moscow for medical treatment and would never return.

Wang wrote many articles denouncing the CCP during the conflict between the CCP and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in the 1960s and 1970s. His memoirs did provide some useful information about CCP history. Above all, Wang was lucky to escape the persecution of the Cultural Revolution, and lived in peace till his death in 1974 in Moscow.

Wang's thought and works

There are great controversies on the appraisal of Wang, his works and thoughts.

According to the orthodox appraisal of Wang of the CCP, the label given by Mao to Wang as a representative of dogmatism, subjectivism and sectarianism hits the nail on the head. Wang adhered to the principles he learned from textbooks on Marxist theory. For example, during the struggle with Li Lisan, in his pamphlet ''Two Routes'', Wang showed more leftism than Li by declaring the proletariat and low-level bourgeoisie as the only revolutionists in China, and claiming that there was no third party or middle camp in the revolution and that all capitalists and upper-level bourgeoisie should be overthrown. Wang advocated for a revolution of extremism in several parts of China and then spreading to the whole country, despite that the CCP was much weaker than the KMT at that time. Wang insisted that urban revolution was preferable to rural revolution, despite the fact that China was actually a largely-agricultural country. Furthermore, Wang advocated unconditional obedience to the Comintern and the Soviet Union, without regard for Chinese realities and keeping the independence of the CCP, which would be harmful to Chinese national interest and pride.

Furthermore, Wang was a theorist and lecturer rather than an activist, an idealist rather than a realist, and an intellectual rather than a politician. The CCP would never win the revolution through speeches and theories. When Wang won power, his immaturity and recklessness, with little experience of struggling under tough conditions, was uncovered. He seldom realized that his power was built on sand. Compared with Mao, who was a veteran survivor of the cruel power struggle inside and outside CCP, Wang was destined to fall once he lost support from Moscow.

However, there is no doubt that Wang was a good student of Marxism and a practitioner of revolution. The best proof of Wang's talent and deep understanding of Marxism and Leninism was the large number of articles and speeches he produced before his thirties, which most Chinese Marxists did not equal in output in their whole lives. His talent in theory and propaganda won him fame and power, and he contributed to the Chinese revolution to some extent. Chief among his contributions are his theories on the Chinese revolution and the United Front, about which he wrote a pamphlet ''Two Routes'' and gave a lecture for the Comintern in 1935. Moreover, Wang did provide in his memoirs valuable information about the early stages of the CCP, especially in his book ''50 Years of the CCP''.

In particular, unlike Mao, who was a pragmatist and politician who learned all his tactics from the Chinese history rather than from the Marxism and Leninism classics, Wang was a zealot of Marxism and Leninism. He might have longed for power, but his ultimate goal was the realization of communism.

Wang Jiancheng

Wang Jiancheng is a Chinese scholar of criminal procedure law, former Dean of Law Department, Yantai University, and currently a professor at Beijing University Law School.


Wang was born in , Anhui in 1962. He received his LL.B. and LL.M degrees from Beijing University in 1983 and 1986, and received his LL.D. degree from Renmin University of China Law School in 1999.

Wang joined the faculty of Yantai University in 1986 and became the Dean of the Department of Law from 1996 to 1999. After August 1999, Wang became a professor at Beijing University Law School.

Wang was a visiting scholar in Catholic University of Leuven from 1994 to 1996, and in Yale Law School from 2004 to 2005.

Wang Dazhi

Wang Dazhi was a educator.


Wang Dazhi was born in Yi County, Anhui in 1903. He was appointed by Tao Xingzhi to be the president of Xin'an School from 1928 to 1935.

He established Xin'an Lvxing Tuan , a group of primary school students, to travel all around China for education from 1935 to 1949.

After the People's Republic of China was founded, Wang had been the President of Nanjing Xiaozhuang Normal College, Deputy Director of Chinese Character Reform Committee , and Party Secretary of Guangdong College of Nationalities .

Wang died in Beijing in March 1980.

Sun Li-jen

Sun Li-jen was a Kuomintang , best known for his leadership in the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War. His achievements earned him the laudatory nickname " of the East". His New 1st Army was reputed as the "1st Army under the heaven" and credited with defeating the most Japanese troops. He was also known as Sun Chung-neng and had the courtesy name Sun Fu-min .

Early life

Sun Li-jen was born in Jinnu Town, Lujiang County, Anhui province, with ancestry in Shucheng County. During the May Fourth Movement, he was part of the s in the march at Tiananmen Square. In the same year he married Gong Xitao and was admitted in 1920 to Tsinghua University to study civil engineering. Sun played basketball at Tsinghua, becoming a star. He led the Chinese team to a gold medal at the 1921 Far Eastern Championship Games.

With a Boxer Rebellion Indemnity Scholarship, he transferred to Purdue University in the United States to complete his senior year in 1923, where he graduated in 1924. But in the United States, ideological zeal motivated him to dramatically change vocations and pursue a military career instead. China was in the middle of civil war, and Soviet and Japanese invaders seemed poised to devour China. Sun decided that he could better serve his divided nation as a soldier rather than an engineer.

He applied to the Virginia Military Institute, also in the United States, lying about his age by four years so that he would appear young enough to meet the school's admissions requirements. He graduated from VMI in 1927 and joined Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in the against the warlord generals of the Beiyang Army. During the Second Sino-Japanese War and the latter war against the Chinese Communists in the Chinese Civil War, Sun Li-jen became a highly effective field officer and valued subordinate to Chiang Kai-shek.

Second Sino-Japanese War

Sun was a colonel and led his troop, a Tax Police Regiment, fighting Japanese during the Battle of Shanghai in 1937. He was badly wounded by rifle grenade fragments. After recovery from his injury, Sun led his troops back to the front line. Later, the Nationalist government formed National Salt Gabelle Brigade with 8 regiments. Four of the regiments later became New 38th Division with Sun as the Commandering General. His training center was located in Duyun in the province of Guizhou.

After two years training, Sun's New 38th Division was part of the forces Chiang Kai-shek sent into Burma to protect the Burma Road under General Du Yuming. Sun led Chinese forces to the relief of British forces trapped by the Japanese in the Battle of Yenangyaung. Although unable to stop the Japanese from cutting the Burma Road, Sun gained the respect of General William Slim, the Commander of the British 14th Army for his competence. Sun and his division retreated into India and became a part of 'X Force', the Chinese forces under the command of Joseph Stilwell, the American commander of all American and Chinese forces deployed in the "China Burma India Theater". Sun's division spearheaded Stilwell's 1943 drive to reconquer North Burma and re-establish the land route to China by the Ledo Road.

In Taiwan

As the commander of the Army Training Command and deputy commander of the Republic of China Army in 1947, Sun moved one training facility to Taiwan, independent from the on-going civil war. Sun trained new officers and troops for the Nationalist government, hoping to change the tide of the civil war. The effort was too little too late in comparison with the massive numbers of troops defeated, but one of the division trained was sent to Quemoy to help defend the communist invasion in 1949. It was the front line defense force against the invasion of the communist troops. Later in 1950, Sun was named the Commander in Chief of the Republic of China Army, while also the commander of the Taiwan Defense Command, and the Army Training Command. Because Sun was well respected by the Americans and rumors had it that the Americans would like to help him into power to replace Chiang Kai-Shek, Chiang and his son Chiang Ching-kuo were eager to remove him from power. Sun was assigned first as the ceremonial chief military adviser to President Chiang Kai-Shek in June 1954, preventing him from directly controlling any troops. Later in August 1955, he was falsely accused and arrested, charged with attempting to stage a coup against Chiang Kai-shek. He remained under house arrest until exonerated March 20, 1988, shortly after Chiang Ching-kuo's death. He died in his Taichung home at the age of 91 . His funeral was in full military honor with the presence of the Secretary of Defense. His reputation was cleared in 2001 after a government investigation into the coup attempt.

The Control Yuan formally cleared him of charges in January 2001.

Su Yong

Su Yong is a Chinese musician, main instrument . Started Cold Fairyland, a Chinese group with Lin Di in 2001 and is continuing to perform with the band.

Other job: MIDI Device Engineer in a music instrument factory.

Ni Sichong

Ni Sichong was a general. He was one of the handful of generals who along with supported Yuan Shikai's during the National Protection War. He was later part of the Anhui clique until resigning in 1920 due to the disastrous defeat in the Zhili-Anhui War.

Luo Zundian

Luo Zundian, was a governor of province who ended several rebellions,but forced suicide in Second rout the Army Group Jiangnan in Hangzhou when the Taiping forces fallen down this city at last.

Before 9 months Xiang Army raised, Luo Zundian was the first existing regional and village militia forces to against the Taiping rebellion from northern Hubei in late 1852 whole China, then he committed the vice governor of Hubei .


Luo born in Susong County, Anhui. From very early in life, he showed remarkable ability, and he became a ''shengyuan'' in the imperial examination system. In 1835, he obtained ''jinshi'' degree, the highest level in the Imperial examination system. Shortly after this the central provinces of the empire were invaded by the , and in he raised a regiment of militia.

Rainy days:sadness begin

Luo was the first death of 4 governors in 1860--1861 when Taiping attacks. Taiping commander Li Xiucheng spend 20 days fallen down Hangzhou from southern mountains, these days are rainy days but Luo directed citizens defence city bravely but loss. Sad was Luo Zundian's wife and daughters all forced suicide together that rain look like tears for their unlucky.

Liu Qibao

Liu Qibao is a politician. He was elected the chairman of the Standing Committee of the Sichuan Provincial People's Congress on January 27, 2008. He also currently serves as the chief of the Communist Party of China Sichuan Committee.

Liu Qibao was born in Anhui Province in 1953. He has previously served as the Communist Party chief of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. He was first appointed Sichuan's Communist Party chief in December 2007.

Li Keqiang

Li Keqiang is currently the Executive Vice-Premier of China and the 7th ranked member of the powerful Politburo Standing Committee, the People's Republic of China's ''de facto'' top power organ. Having previously served as Governor of Henan and the province's CPC party chief from 1998 to 2004, and then the , an office that makes him first-in-charge in that province. Li is speculated as one of the likely successors to Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao in the "" of CPC leadership.


Li was born in , Anhui in 1955. He received his LLB, and later a PhD in Economics from Peking University. He entered the top leadership of the Communist Youth League in 1982, and has worked closely with current President Hu Jintao since. He is a representative member of the first generation to have risen from the CYL leadership.

Li became China's youngest governor when appointed to be in charge of Henan, one of China's most populous provinces, in June 1998, at the age of 43. Knowing the complicated situation Henan was in, and the issues associated with networking in the province, Li consciously left his family in Beijing to head to Zhengzhou alone. In addition, according to provincial government officials working with him at the time, Li refused to participate in any banquets or large fancy events not related to government activities.

He is known to be outspoken with a sharp tongue, and led economic development in the central Chinese province, transforming the poor inland region into an attractive area for investment. Li wasted little time in pursuing superficial projects, but rather trekked all regions of Henan trying to search for a comprehensive solution to the province's growing problems. Henan jumped in national GDP rankings from 28th in the early 1990s to 18th in 2004, when Li left Henan.

He was transferred to work as the in Liaoning in December 2004. In Liaoning he is known for the "Five-points to one Line" project, where he linked up Dalian and Dandong, as well as a series of other ports into a comprehensive network. Predictions he would eventually advance to the national level at the 17th Party Congress proved correct when he was elected to the Politburo Standing Committee in October 2007. He was succeeded in his provincial post by Governor Zhang Wenyue.

Li has been touted as a possible successor to Hu Jintao, whose second term as General Secretary, expected to be his last, will end in 2012. At the 2008 National People's Congress, he was elected Vice-Premier, first in rank. This position makes it seem more likely that he will succeed Premier Wen Jiabao.

Jiang Wenli

Jiang Wenli is a famous Chinese actress. She is a native of Tianjin, and graduated from Beijing Film Academy in 1992. She married director Gu Changwei in 1993.


*''And the Spring Comes'', 2007

TV series

*''Chinese Divorce''
*''Golden Anniversary'' , 2007

Duan Qirui

Duàn Qíruì was a warlord and politician, commander in the Beiyang Army, and the from November 24, 1924 to April 20, 1926. He was arguably the most powerful man in China from 1916 to 1920.

Early life

Born in Hefei as ''Duan Qirui'' , his courtesy name was ''Zhiquan'' . His grandfather was Duan Pei , an officer in Li Hongzhang's privately raised army called Huai Army . Duan Qirui's father died early and Duan Qirui was raised by his maternal grandmother.



In 1885, Duan Qirui entered Tianjin military academy specializing in artillery, and graduated in 1889. After graduation, he was sent to Lushun to oversee the construction of artillery fortifications, and soon, Li Hongzhang sent him to study military science in , and after returning to China, he was first named as a commissioner of Beiyang Armory and then as an instructor of Weihai military academy. In early 1896, Yuan Shikai named Duan Qirui as the artillery commander of his new army and inspector general of training, so Duan had become one of Yuan Shikai's top lieutenants.


Duan later opposed Yuan's bid for - he expected to succeed Yuan in the presidency, but the imperial gambit was seen as a betrayal. Duan tried to play the intermediary between the and Yuan, just as Yuan had done during the Xinhai Revolution. Their friendship never repaired even after he was given the , because Yuan shrewdly stripped that office of its powers. He served as premier intermittently from 1912 to 1918 under several governments as part of shaky coalitions that often collapsed. Duan formed the Anhui clique when the Beiyang army fractured after Yuan's death, and was the strongest supporter of China's entry into World War I, but was unwilling to send any of his own troops abroad since it would weaken him against his rivals.

After being fired by President Li Yuanhong for obtaining secret Japanese loans in 1917, he regained his office by toppling 's restoration attempt of Puyi. He was also engaged in a power struggle against his archrival, President Feng Guozhang, over the war with Sun Yat-sen's rival government. Duan wanted a military solution while the president advocated negotiating. He is most noticeable for his frequent collaboration with the Japanese in return for military and financial aid. His promise of giving Japan German concessions in Shandong was one of the reasons for the May Fourth Movement in Beijing. He was held responsible for granting Japan its 21 demands in 1915, one of which was the Shandong issue. With his popularity gone, other warlords led by Cao Kun sided against him and on July 14, 1920, Duan's troop clashed with troops of Zhili clique. After a merely four days, Duan suffered a decisive defeat and he was forced to retire. Duan fled to Japanese settlement in Tianjin and became an apartment landlord. While out of power, his Anhui clique allies were rapidly losing ground. In 1923, he joined the chorus against Cao Kun's assumption of the presidency. Zhejiang, the last Anhui held province, fell in the summer of 1924.

He was called out of retirement in November 1924 after the Beijing coup and put in charge of a provisional government after an agreement with Zhang Zuolin and Feng Yuxiang. Duan, Zhang, and Feng were negotiating with Sun Yat-sen on national reunification until the latter succumbed to cancer in 1925. With his clique's military power in shambles, his government was hopelessly dependent on Feng and Zhang. Knowing that those two had poor relations, he tried to play sides secretly. On March 18, 1926 he ordered his troops to gun down protesters, killing dozens in what became known as the March 18 Massacre. The next month, Feng deposed Duan who then fled into Zhang's hands. Zhang, tired of his double-dealings, refused to restore Duan after capturing Beijing. Most of the Anhui clique had already sided with Zhang. He fled to Tianjin and later moved to Shanghai where he died.

Go, Buddhism and vegetarianism

Duan was also well known as a player and patron of . He usually won because his opponents feared defeating him, with an exception of his own son, who was also a patron of and was not afraid of defeating his own father. After Duan's complete defeat, he became a devoted Buddhist, built a worship hall within his own home, and prayed every morning. Many of his former subordinates frequently came to pray with him. On the first and the fifteenth days of each month , Duan would go to temples to participate in various Buddhist events. Duan became a vegetarian; douchi was his favorite food and was served at every meal. Duan also kept a hen farm at home to provide him with eggs, but kept no roosters, as he claimed that without fertilization, the eggs remained vegetarian.

Du Gangjian

Du Gangjian is a law professor and Dean of Shantou University Law School.


Du Gangjian was born in Hefei, Anhui in 1956. He received his B.A degree from Anhui Normal University in 1979 and Master of Law degree from Renmin University of China Department of Law in 1982.

After graduation, Du joined the faculty of Renmin University of China Department of Law. In 1997, he became a professor at National School of Administration . He was the Chief Professor of Shantou University Law School since 2004 and was appointed the Dean of Shantou University Law School in March 2007, .

Ding Ruchang

Ding Ruchang joined Taiping Rebellion in 1854. But later he joined Li Hongzhang as a cavalryman to fight against the Taiping Rebellion. In 1874, he protested against Qing Dynasty government's decision about reduction of the army size. He went back to his hometown to avoid being killed.

In 1875, he volunteered as the commander of the 's Beiyang Fleet which fought the Battle of the Yalu River in the First Sino-Japanese War in 1894. He became a casualty of the battle from the opening shot of his own vessel, the , along with a number of officers also present on the bridge.

In February 1895, the Beiyang Fleet commanded by Admiral Ding was facing total defeat. Admiral Ding committed suicide. His deputy, Admiral Liu, also committed suicide. The remnants of the Beiyang Fleet surrendered to the Japanese. After his death, Admiral Ding was still blamed by the imperial government for the great defeat, and his family was only after to give him a proper burial in 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution overthrew the Qing dynasty.

Chu Bo

Chu Bo is a regional Chinese politician, currently the Communist Party of China Secretary for the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, therefore the top leader of the region, having held the position since 2001. Previously he served as Governor of Hunan.


Chu is a native of Tongcheng, Anhui. He joined the Communist Party in 1975. Chu has been first-in-charge of the large northern region since August 2001, and has a unique approach to policy. During his tenure, Inner Mongolia's GDP increased at a higher rate than the rest of the country. At its height real GDP growth was measured at 17%. Chu's obsession with GDP growth, however, cost some essential benefits for most of the region's poor. Although his administration gave rise to the slogan, "for economic development, China is the world's bright spot, and Inner Mongolia is China's", Chu created a gross wealth imbalance within the region.

He was investigated by the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection in April 2007 for alleged corruption, including charges of nepotism and illegal transfers of funds, as well as illegally furthering the business interests of friends and relatives. Chu, however, ignored most of the allegations, and concentrated on preparing for the 60th Anniversary Celebrations of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, which cost immense funds. In addition, various text messages began spreading in Inner Mongolia about Chu Bo's corruption record, he made a series of illegal arrests.

Anson Chan

Anson Maria Elizabeth Chan Fang On Sang was a member of the Legislative Council of Hong Kong for Hong Kong Island, succeeding the late legislator Ma Lik. Before running for LegCo, she served as the head of Hong Kong's before and after the territory's handover to the People's Republic of China from colonial rule. She was the first woman and the first to hold the second-highest governmental position in Hong Kong.

Since November 2005 she has indentified herself with the pro-democracy camp, and won the for the Hong Kong Island seat in the Legislative Council, as an independent.


Born one of twins in Shanghai, China, Anson Chan was educated at Hong Kong's Sacred Heart Canossian College and the University of Hong Kong. She was further educated at Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts.

Chan's father, who was a textile manufacturer, moved the family to Hong Kong in 1948. Her mother Fang Zhaoling is a well-known painter. Her grandfather, Fang Zhenwu, was a Kuomintang general who fought against the . Her uncle, Sir Harry Fang, is a well-known orthopaedic surgeon in Hong Kong who was named "International Man of the Year" for his work with handicapped children around the world.

In 1950, Chan's father died aged 36, leaving her mother with eight young children. With the support of Chan's grandmother, her mother not only shouldered the responsibility of raising her children, but also tried to pursue her career as an artist. She took two of her sons to study in England, leaving Chan and her five other siblings in Hong Kong with their grandmother and uncle.

Under her grandmother's strict discipline and high expectations, Chan learned that she had a duty towards the family and the community and was expected to be upright, diligent and righteous. She earned her pocket money by working as a private tutor and spent a year as a clerk at Queen Mary Hospital. In 1959, Chan entered the University of Hong Kong to study English literature.. An investigation by Unofficial members of the Executive Council found that Chan had "acted within the law" in respect of her extreme powers, but recommended changes to the law and to the Social Welfare Department's procedures to prevent re-occurrence of similar cases.

From 1987 to 1993, she was Secretary for Economic Services, becoming the 30th and last in 1993. She mainly oversaw the localisation of the civil service during her time in this position.

Chan was the first woman and the first to hold the second-highest governmental position in Hong Kong. The highest governmental position, the Governor, was always held by before Hong Kong's handover to People's Republic of China.

Chan was often described during this era as an "Iron Lady", with "an iron fist in a velvet glove". Chan was lauded as the most powerful woman in Asia for her role as the deputy of Governor Chris Patten, and later Tung Chee-hwa.

SAR administration career

After Hong Kong's handover to China on 1 July 1997, Chan stayed on as head of the civil service under then Tung Chee-hwa. Chan's public utterances on certain matters have sometimes placed her at odds with Tung, but this also earned her the reputation of being "Hong Kong's Conscience". In contrast to the more conservative Tung, Chan has been more forthcoming with supporting democracy and freedom, and faster pace of democratisation.

Defense of press freedom

:When pro-government figures in Hong Kong attacked the for being too critical of the Hong Kong and Chinese governments, Chan flew to its defence. In the summer of 1999 RTHK became a platform for Taiwan-Mainland China discussions. A local member of the PRC's National People's Congress, Tsang Hin-chi, urged the government-owned radio station to exercise self-censorship and not to provide a platform that express the splitting of China; Xu Simin, a member of Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, urged RTHK to not allow Taiwan's president broadcasts. Chan spoke in a four hour speech after Wang on the importance of press freedom and publication, as she believed in genuine press freedom without external pressures.

Chan agreed in 1999 to delay her retirement until June 2002. However, Chan announced her resignation in January 2001, and officially stepped down in April of the same year. and has since participated in subsequent marches for universal suffrage.

In July 2006, she criticised the Commission on Strategic Development, chaired by Donald Tsang, for being "rather slow and unsatisfactory", and announced her intention to start a "Core Group" to push for taking forward the debate on Hong Kong’s constitutional reforms. It was later announced that the group would consist of:

* Allen Lee, former chairman
* Christine Loh, Convenor of the Civic Exchange
* Elizabeth Bosher
* Professor Johannes Chan
* Chandran Nair
* Lily Yam Kwan Pui-ying

On 23 September 2006, in a news conference, Chan proclaimed that she would not run for the position of Chief Executive in 2007.

LegCo campaign 2007

On 11 September 2007, Chan announced that she would run in the December 2007 in the Legislative Council made vacant by the death of Ma Lik. During the campaign, she was criticized by Alex Tsui, a former official who accused Chan of obtaining a 100% mortgage to purchase a flat in 1993 when she was chief secretary, suggesting an abuse of power. A commentator said the issue marked the start of a smear campaign against Chan, although Chan did not engage in smear-free politics either, accusing her rival Regina Ip of being a "fake democrat".

In the early hours of 2 December 2007, Chan was elected in the by-election with 175,874 votes, securing about 55% of the vote. Regina Ip, Chan's main rival, had 137,550 votes.

For this election, Chan spent HK$1.81 million, $330,000 more than her pro-Beijing rival Regina Ip. Her two main donors were Sir Quo-wei Lee and his wife, and Hong Kong Democratic Foundation chairman George Cautherly, who donated HK$250,000 each. Next Media chairman Jimmy Lai chee-ying donated HK$200,000, and the Democratic Party gave HK$65,840 "for services".

Leaving LegCo

On 6 July 2008, Chan announced that she would not be seeking reelection to the Legislative Council.


Among her numerous siblings, one brother, David Fang Jin-sheng, was a former orthopaedics lecturer and Hong Kong Academy of Medicine chief, and another brother, John Fang Meng-sang, is a lawyer.

She and her husband have two children, Michelle and Andrew. They have four grandchildren.

Zhang Bojun

Zhang Bojun was a Chinese politician and intellectual.


Zhang studied philosophy in Germany between 1922-1924, and joined the Chinese Communist Party upon becoming a personal friend with Zhu De , his roommate at the time. Zhang left the CCP following the doom of the “August First” military uprising in 1927, and over the years, in collaboration with others, founded the third parties, known today as the Chinese Democratic Party of Peasants and Workers, and the China Democratic League. Before the revolution, Zhang was the dean of a teacher’s college in his home province of Anhui and later an English professor in Zhongshan University .

He was appointed as the vice-Chairman of the 2nd CPPCC, National Committee of the People’s Republic of China 1954–, and . Vocal during the Hundred Flowers Campaign, Zhang was removed by Mao Zedong from his minister's position and staged as a public enemy during the Anti-Rightist Campaign in 1957, being labeled as ‘China’s number one rightist’.

His 10,000-volume family library was destroyed during the Cultural Revolution in the 1960's . His daughter, Zhang Yihe, is a writer with censored History books. Even several years after his death, Chinese communists still criticised him and defended the ’s actions.

With his political ambitions unfulfilled and reform goals unaccomplished, Zhang lived a Renaissance man’s life in his private library of ancient books and art relics after his removal from the many positions he once held. At least until the Cultural Revolution he could retreat to this last sanctuary to reflect back on his journey from an early member of the CCP and a leader in the “August First” military uprising , to a high-impact power broker between the CCP and all third-party political forces , and on to an enthusiast of the New China. He was once offered by the central government to live in exile abroad with state funding, but Zhang rejected the offer, and said “Please convey to Chairman Mao, Zhang Bojun was born on this land, and he will die on this land”, quoted in his daughter’s best seller of 2004, unofficial biographies of friends and associates of Zhang and family. Also quoted in his daughter’s best seller was Zhang’s own personal motto: “I do not judge myself by the honors I hold or by the indignities forced upon me, nor do I judge others by their successes and failures in life.”

Zhang died of stomach cancer and the family believed that depression as a result of his political downfall may have contributed to the deterioration of his health.